Language and punctuation

Literacy - The eight parts of language

  1. Nouns
    A noun is the type of word we use to identify a place, person, object or an idea... girl, city, ball, - whereas proper nouns are used to describe a particular place, person, object or idea...   Michelle, Leeds, November.
  2. Pronoun
    Pronouns stand in for nouns... 'The teacher took the register' becomes 'she took it'.
  3. Verbs
    Verbs are doing words. They also describe what tense things happen in. i.e. - past, present or future.
    Past - I went to school yesterday.
    Present - I am on holiday today.
    Future - I shall still be on holiday tomorrow.
  4. Adjectives
    Adjectives describe nouns or pronouns. e.g. The young man washed his blue car.
  5. Adverbs
    Adverbs add information about verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. e.g. I held her hand tightly. The wind was very strong.
  6. Prepositions
    Prepositions show the relationship between a noun and another word. e.g. The man sat on the seat.
  7. Conjunctions
    Conjunctions join groups of words. e.g. Mary exercises often and eats a well balanced diet.
  8. Interjections
    Interjections are used when expressing emotions and feelings. They are often used with exclamation marks. e.g. Help! I'm stuck! Wow! That was cool!

Literacy - Punctuation

It is your punctuation that helps make your writing clear and easier to read and clarifies meaning to the reader. Reading your work aloud helps you see where punctuation is needed. Listed below are the 10 most common punctuation marks.


Full stop .
Full stops are placed at the end of each sentence that is not a question or emotional quotation.
The book was great.
comma Comma ,
Use a comma to indicate a pause in a sentence and to separate three or more items in a list.
I've been shopping. I bought bread, milk, eggs, sugar and butter.
questionmark Question Mark ?
Question marks are used at the end of a question.
How old are you?
exclamation Exclamation Mark !
Use an exclamation mark at the end of sentences to show surprise or deep feelings.
Cracking good game! Hey you, stop!
colon Colon :
Colons are used in sentences where lists or examples are to be described.
I like: music, sport, reading and playing computer games.
semicolon Semi-colon ;
Use a semi-colon to connect independent clauses in a compound sentence.
The ride was very scary; Chris felt ill.
apostrophe Apostrophe '
Apostrophes indicate a possession, or they are used when a letter has been removed
The boy's book. I didn't (did not) see her. I'll (I shall) find her.
speechmarks Speech Marks " "
Speech marks are used to enclose direct speech.
"I can see you better now," he said.

Brackets ()
Brackets (parentheses) are used to add extra information to a sentence.
My (first) driving test is tomorrow.


Dashes -
Also separates extra information from the main sentence.
I passed my driving test - first time.